All Publications

Nissim Garti and Junko. Yano. 2001. “The role of emulsifiers in fat crystallization.” In Cryst. Processes Fats Lipid Syst., edited by N. Garti K and Sato, Pp. 211–250. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Abstract
A review discusses the effect of emulsifiers on crystn. processes of fats, including nucleation, growth, and phase transitions. Surfactants affect rheol. properties of fats by changing the network formation of fat crystals affecting various phenomena, such as bloom, gloss, and cracking of fat coatings in chocolate or other fat-rich solid products. The emulsifiers affect the fat crystn. and the wetting and adhesion properties of the fats in dispersed systems based in dispersed fat. The behavior of fats could be better predicted using amphiphiles, which allows better control of the phys. properties. [on SciFinder(R)]
RW Hartel and KE Kaylegian. 2001. “Advances in milk fat fractionation: technology and applications.” In Cryst. Processes Fats Lipid Syst., Pp. 381–427. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Abstract
A review discusses the recent advances on the underlying principles of fractionation technologies and the applications of milk fat fractions as value-added ingredients in the food industry. The chem. compn. of milk fat is considered. Fractionation processes could be improved significantly with increasing knowledge of the mechanisms and kinetics of milk fat crystn. The application of milk fat fractions in food product requires an understanding of how milk component interacts with the other components in the product. [on SciFinder(R)]
Niels. Krog. 2001. “Crystallization properties and lyotropic phase behavior of food emulsifiers: Relation to technical applications.” In Cryst. Processes Fats Lipid Syst., Pp. 505–526. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Abstract
A review discusses the crystn. properties of mixed fatty acid monoglycerides and their org. acid esters. The phase behavior of com. food emulsifiers, primarily monoglycerides and their derivs., is also discussed. The formation of liq. cryst. structures in aq. systems is essential for interactions with carbohydrates or proteins, and it facilitates foam formation in aerated foods. Knowledge of the phys. properties of polar lipids is a major consideration in selecting the optimal emulsifier, or combinations, for a given application in the food industry as well as other tech. applications. [on SciFinder(R)]
Hajime Matsuda, Michihiro Yamaguchi, and Hidetoshi. Arima. 2001. “Separation and crystallization of oleaginous constituents in cosmetics: Sweating and blooming.” In Cryst. Processes Fats Lipid Syst., Pp. 485–503. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Abstract
A review on the mechanisms of sweating and blooming with respect to the sepn. of oils from wax and the crystn. of fatty acids. By understanding these mechanisms, the solid-liq. sepn. phenomena caused by sweating and blooming may be avoided during the storage of oleaginous solid cosmetic pencils such as lipsticks, eyeliners, and eyebrow pencils. Studies show that sweating is due to the expansion of oils in the wax matrix and/or shriveling of the wax matrix due to increased temp. and humidity. In contrast, blooming involves the soly. of higher fatty acids, a modulator the consistency and hardness of oleaginous cosmetics in oils, and is assocd. with a series of processes such as dissoln.-sepn.-transformation of crystals of higher fatty acids. [on SciFinder(R)]
Malcolm JW Povey. 2001. “Crystallization of oil-in-water emulsions.” In Cryst. Processes Fats Lipid Syst., Pp. 251–288. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Abstract
A review focuses on crystal nucleation and growth in oil-in-water emulsions. The theory of crystn. is discussed considering that crystn. is initiated in the dispersed liq. phase and that the continuous phase of the emulsion cannot crystallize. Various exptl. methods in detg. the presence of cryst. materials and the measurements of crystn. in an oil-in-water emulsion are underlined. [on SciFinder(R)]
Koji Nozaki and Masamichi. Hikosaka. 2001. “Nucleation and growth in the solid-solid phase transitions of n-alkanes.” In Cryst. Processes Fats Lipid Syst., Pp. 151–176. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Abstract
A review discusses the mol. mechanisms of the solid-solid phase transitions, such as the "rotator phase transition," of n-alkanes. Such mechanisms have important relevance to various complicated phys. and chem. properties of biol., food, and industrial materials. The rotator phase transitions of n-alkanes are mainly controlled by the primary nucleation and growth processes and a precursor called "wrinkle" plays an essential role in the onset of nucleation. Significant hysteresis in transition temp. between the heating and cooling processes is due to accumulation of strain within crystals on heating process which accelerates nucleation. Tilting and side chain packing are important independent factors in phase transitions. [on SciFinder(R)]
Alois Raemy, Pierre Lambelet, and Nissim. Garti. 2001. “Thermal behavior of foods and food constituents.” Surfactant Science Series, 93, Thermal Behavior of Dispersed Systems, Pp. 477–505. Abstract
A review. Some general aspects of food constitution and of the most useful calorimetric techniques are described. The thermal behavior of the food constituents water, lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and minor constituents is characterized. The thermal behavior of raw and reconstituted foods is considered. Self-heating, self-ignition, and safety aspects are included. Differential scanning calorimetry and DTA are emphasized. [on SciFinder(R)]
Kiyotaka Sato and Satoru. Ueno. 2001. “Molecular interactions and phase behavior of polymorphic fats.” In Cryst. Processes Fats Lipid Syst., Pp. 177–209. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Abstract
A review on the mol. interactions and dynamic phase behavior of the polymorphic forms of the mixed acid triacylglycerols (I). A description of the kinetic properties of the monoacid I is provided for ref. Other topics discussed include: basic concepts of fat polymorphism; polymorphism in mixed-acid I; dynamic aspects in polymorphic transformations of principal I; and thermodn. and kinetic phase properties in binary mixts. of I. [on SciFinder(R)]
Kiyotaka Sato and Tetsuo. Koyano. 2001. “Crystallization properties of cocoa butter.” In Cryst. Processes Fats Lipid Syst., Pp. 429–456. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Abstract
A review discusses the fundamental and application aspects of crystn. behavior of cocoa butter (CB). The polymeric nature of CB and its crystn. behavior under various external influences are discussed, including the mechanisms of fat bloom. [on SciFinder(R)]
Kevin W Smith. 2001. “Crystallization of palm oil and its fractions.” In Cryst. Processes Fats Lipid Syst., Pp. 357–380. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Abstract
A review focuses on the major processes in the fractionation of palm oil including dry, detergent and wet fractionation. Oil fractionation generates a liq. oil with improved properties or produce a fraction with a narrower compn. and melting behavior. Factors affecting palm oil crystn. including phase behavior and polymorphism, minor components, additives, post crystn. processes and modeling are discussed. [on SciFinder(R)]
Pieter Walstra, William Kloek, and Ton. Van Vliet. 2001. “Fat crystal networks.” In Cryst. Processes Fats Lipid Syst., Pp. 289–328. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Abstract
A review with refs. on the many factors affecting the formation and properties of fat crystal networks. [on SciFinder(R)]
A Yaghmur, A Aserin, Y Mizrahi, A Nerd, and N Garti. 2001. “Evaluation of argan oil for deep-fat frying.” Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und -Technologie, 34, 3, Pp. 124–130. Abstract
Argan (Argania spinosa L.) oil has a high dietetic and culinary value because it consists of high percentage of unsatd. fatty acids, and it is rich in aroma and flavor. The main objectives of this study were to det. the stability of argan oil (55.4% oleic acid and 24.4% linoleic acid) and to compare it to high-oleic olive oil (78.2% oleic acid and 7.9% linoleic acid) and cottonseed oil (19.8% oleic acid and 52.0% linoleic acid) at high temps. in heating and deep-fat frying conditions. Several quality parameters were tested and compared in time-temp. conditions simulating abuse by heating and deep-fat frying. After frying no change in the contact angle of argan, olive and cottonseed oils was obsd., while in other tests (color index, viscosity, peroxide value, induction period, conjugated dienes content, total polar compds.) the stability of argan and olive oil was better than that of cottonseed oil. Oil uptake of deep-fried potatoes in argan oil was slightly lower than that in olive or cottonseed oil. It was concluded that argan oil can substitute olive or cottonseed oils in deep-fat frying. The aroma, flavor, oxidative stability and the health benefits might "compensate" for the high cost of the oil. Sensory evaluation of fried french potatoes and their storage stability were not studied, and addn. work is needed to evaluate the quality and storage stability of french potatoes fried in argan, olive and cottonseed oils. (c) 2001 Academic Press. [on SciFinder(R)]