All Publications

Nissim Garti, Yana Berkovich, Ben-Zion Dolitzky, Judith Aronhime, Claude Singer, Anita Lieberman, and Neomi. Gershon. 2002. “New crystal forms of lamotrigine and processes for their preparations.” Canada CA2439468. Abstract
The present invention relates to lamotrigine, a useful agent for anti-epilepsia. New crystal forms of lamotrigine-contg. mols. of the solvent in stoichiometric ratios are disclosed. Processes for prepg. the new crystal forms of lamotrigine and dosage forms are also provided. For example, 2 g of lamotrigine anhyd. and about 80 mL of ethanol were charged in a three-necked bottomed round flask equipped with a mech. stirrer, a condenser and a thermometer. The suspension was stirred for about 24 h without heating at about 25° and the solid phase was sepd. by filtration, producing lamotrigine Form H, i.e., lamotrigine ethanol monosolvate. [on SciFinder(R)]
Nissim Garti and Eli J Pinthus. 2002. “Fenugreek gum. The magic fiber for an improved glucose response and cholesterol reduction.” NutraCos, 1, 3, Pp. 5–10. Abstract
A review. Fenugreek gum is a unique galactomannan-type nonionic polysaccharide. This water-sol. hydrocolloid differs from most dietary fibers since it has only moderate viscosity and gelation properties, and yet the most pronounced health benefits. FenuPure is a purified fenugreek hydrocolloid product that is odor-free and fat-free. It has strong beneficial effects on diabetes mellitus since it acts as an excellent glucose level controller. It can also contribute to decreases of blood cholesterol levels and body wt. [on SciFinder(R)]
Anan Yaghmur, Abraham Aserin, and Nissim. Garti. 2002. “Furfural-Cysteine Model Reaction in Food Grade Nonionic Oil/Water Microemulsions for Selective Flavor Formation.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 10, Pp. 2878–2883. Abstract
The thermal reaction between cysteine and furfural was investigated at 65° C in 5-component food grade oil/water (O/W) microemulsions of R-(+)-limonene/ethanol, EtOH/water/propylene glycol, PG/Tween 60 as apart of a systematic study on the generation of aroma compds. by utilizing structured W/O and O/W fluids. The furfural-cysteine reaction led to the formation of unique aroma compds. such as 2-furfurylthiol, 2-(2-furanyl)thiazolidine (main reaction product), 2-(2-furanyl)thiazoline, and N-(2-mercaptovinyl)-2-(2-furanyl)thiazolidine. These products were detd. and characterized by GC-MS. Enhancement in flavor formation is termed "microemulsion catalysis". The chem. reaction occurs preferably at the interfacial film, and therefore a pseudophase model was assumed to explain the enhanced flavor formation. The product internal compn. is dictated by process conditions such as temp., time, pH, and mainly the nature of the interface. Increasing water/PG ratio leads to a dramatic increase in the initial reaction rate (V0). V0 increased linearly as a function of the aq. phase content, which could be due to the increase in the interfacial concn. of furfural. Microemulsions offer a new reaction medium to produce selective aroma compds. and to optimize their formation. [on SciFinder(R)]
A Yaghmur, A Aserin, and N Garti. 2002. “Phase behavior of microemulsions based on food-grade nonionic surfactants: effect of polyols and short-chairs alcohols.” COLLOIDS AND SURFACES A-PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND ENGINEERING ASPECTS, 209, 1, Pp. 71–81. Abstract
The improved water and oil solubilization in the presence of polyols (propylene glycol, PG, and glycerol, Gly) and short-chain alcohol (ethanol) in U-type nonionic W/O and O/W food microemulsions was investigated. The phase behavior of systems based on Tweens (ethoxylated sorbitan esters) was compared with non-food-grade systems based on C18:1E10 (Brij 96v). Short-chain alcohol (ethanol in food-grade systems) together with polyols (glycerol and propylene glycol) when added to a three component system (oil-surfactant-water) induce the formation of both water-in-oil (W/O) and oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsions. Alcohols and polyols destabilize the liquid crystalline phase and extend the isotropic region to higher surfactant concentrations. The total monophasic area, A(T), at R(+)-limonene/ethanol of 1/1 (w/w) and aqueous phase of water/PG of 1/1 (w/w), was 73 and 64% of the total area of the phase diagram for Brij 96v and Tween 60, respectively. The transition from a W/O microemulsion into an O/W microemulsion happens gradually, and continuously without any phase separation. The total monophasic area depends also on the type of the oil, on the composition of the polar and apolar phases, and on the nature of the polyol. The results are discussed in terms of BSO equation, spontaneous curvature, H-0, film flexibility, K and (K) over bar, surfactant oil and surfactant cosolvent compatibility and the participation of the polyol at the interface. The difference in temperature sensitivity of PG-based microemulsions vs. temperature sensitivity of Gly-based is demonstrated and explained. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
A Yaghmur, A Aserin, I Tiunova, and N Garti. 2002. “Sub-zero temperature behaviour of non-ionic microemulsions in the presence of propylene glycol by DSC.” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 69, 1, Pp. 163–177. Abstract
The five-component system is quite unique since it allows formation of reverse micelles with hydrophilic ethoxylated alc. in the presence of ethanol and it facilitates diln. by water/propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol, PG) aq. phase, all the way from a water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion via a bicontinuous phase to an oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion. The surfactant/alc./PG can strongly bound water in the inner phase so that it freezes below -10°C and acts in part as bound water and in part as non-freezable water. Upon diln. to \textgreater30 mass% aq. phase (water/PG at const. mass ratio of 1/1) the system becomes bicontinuous and the aq. layers are composed again from bound water. Even after complete inversion to O/W microemulsions the water in the continuous phase is strongly interacting with the PG/surfactant and remains bound or non-freezable. Water/PG/ethanol have a strong effect on the head groups (freezing below -10°C) and also on the hydrophobic tails (recrystg. and melting) at lower temp. when diln. exceeds 45 mass% water/PG (1/1). No free water was detected neither in the W/O microemulsion s inner droplet domains nor when the microemulsion was either bicontinuous or when it was inversed to O/W. Continuous phase of resulting O/W microemulsion apparently is based on water/PG at a mass ratio of 1/1. [on SciFinder(R)]
Aviram Spernath, Anan Yaghmur, Abraham Aserin, Roy E Hoffman, and Nissim. Garti. 2002. “Food-Grade Microemulsions Based on Nonionic Emulsifiers: Media To Enhance Lycopene Solubilization.” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 23, Pp. 6917–6922. Abstract
Water-dilutable food-grade microemulsions consisting of ethoxylated sorbitan esters, and in some cases blended with other emulsifiers, water, (R)-(+)-limonene, ethanol, and propylene glycol, have been prepd. These microemulsions are of growing interest to the food industry as vehicles for delivering and enhancing solubilization of natural food supplements with nutritional and health benefits. Lycopene, an active natural lipophilic antioxidant from tomato, has solubilized in water-in-oil, bicontinuous, and oil-in-water types of microemulsions up to 10 times the oil [(R)-(+)-limonene] dissoln. capacity. The effects of aq.-phase diln., nature of surfactant (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance), and mixed surfactant on solubilization capacity and solubilization efficiency were studied. Structural aspects studied by self-diffusion NMR were correlated to the solubilization capacity, and transformational structural changes were identified. [on SciFinder(R)]
Anan Yaghmur, Abraham Aserin, and Nissim. Garti. 2002. “Phase behavior of microemulsions based on food-grade nonionic surfactants: effect of polyols and short-chain alcohols.” Colloids and Surfaces, A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 209, 1, Pp. 71–81. Abstract
The improved water and oil solubilization in the presence of polyols (propylene glycol, PG, and glycerol, Gly) and short-chain alc. (ethanol) in U-type nonionic W/O and O/W food microemulsions was investigated. The phase behavior of systems based on Tweens (ethoxylated sorbitan esters) was compared with non-food-grade systems based on C18:1E10 (Brij 96v). Short-chain alc. (ethanol in food-grade systems) together with polyols (glycerol and propylene glycol) when added to a three component system (oil-surfactant-water) induce the formation of both water-in-oil (W/O) and oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsions. Alcs. and polyols destabilize the liq. cryst. phase and extend the isotropic region to higher surfactant concns. The total monophasic area, AT, at R(+)-limonene/ethanol of 1/1 (wt./wt.) and aq. phase of water/PG of 1/1 (wt./wt.), was 73 and 64% of the total area of the phase diagram for Brij 96v and Tween 60, resp. The transition from a W/O microemulsion into an O/W microemulsion happens gradually, and continuously without any phase sepn. The total monophasic area depends also on the type of the oil, on the compn. of the polar and apolar phases, and on the nature of the polyol. Solubilization properties are explained n terms of spontaneous curvature, film flexibility, etc. Deviations from the BSO equation are explained in terms of the nature of the oil and surfactants. The difference in temp. sensitivity of PG-based microemulsions vs. temp. sensitivity of Gly-based is demonstrated and explained. [on SciFinder(R)]
R Adleman and RW Hartel. 2001. “Lipid crystallization and its effect on the physical structure of ice cream.” In Cryst. Processes Fats Lipid Syst., Pp. 329–355. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Abstract
A review discusses the role of lipid crystn. in the development of structure during the processing of ice cream. The rate and extent of lipid crystn. during processing of ice cream is dependent on the nature of the fat phase. Processing condition, lipid source, and emulsifier type and level, can all influence the crystn. behavior of ice cream and lead to differences in organoleptic properties, which contribute to its final structure, quality, and eating properties. [on SciFinder(R)]
Dino Aquilano and Giulio. Sgualdino. 2001. “Fundamental aspects of equilibrium and crystallization kinetics.” In Cryst. Processes Fats Lipid Syst., Pp. 1–51. Marcel Dekker, Inc. Abstract
A review. A theor. treatise is given on crystal growth. Among the topics treated are: the equil. between a crystal and its mother phase, the equil. form of a crystal, the adhesion energy (Dupre formula) and the wetting of a crystal, the thermodn. and kinetics of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation, the nucleation of polymorphs and the Ostwald ripening, elementary growth mechanisms of certain crystal faces, and the effect of impurities on the crystal morphol. and habit. [on SciFinder(R)]

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