# Peer Review Publications

J SCHLICHTER, N Garti, and S SARIG. 1986. “Heat capacity of tristearin in the presence of food emulsifiers.” JAOCS, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 63, 6, Pp. 788–791. Abstract
The sp. heats of tristearin [555-43-1] in the presence of some food emulsifiers were detd. by differential scanning calorimetry. Solid emulsifiers show Cp curves different from those of pure tristearin, indicating that a new mixed crystal was obtained through the incorporation of the surfactant within the fat. [on SciFinder(R)]
R AZOURY, B GOLDWASSER, S PERLBERG, Y WAX, N Garti, and S SARIG. 1985. “Relative inhibitory potential of urinary macromolecular fractions on calcium oxalate precipitation.” In Urolithiasis Relat. Clin. Res., [Proc. Int. Symp.], 5th, Pp. 839–842. Plenum. Abstract
Two distinct groups of macromol. inhibitors of Ca oxalate pptn. were found in the urine of healthy humans; one is \textgreater10,000 daltons, and the other is \textgreater500 but \textless1,000 daltons. The \textgreater10,000 dalton group was absent from the urine of stone formers. The data agrees with the hypothesis that several kinds of inhibitors are present in urine. [on SciFinder(R)]
R AZOURY, B GOLDWASSER, Y WAX, S PERLBERG, N Garti, and S SARIG. 1985. “Evaluation of the relative inhibitory potential of fractionated urinary macromolecules.” Urological research, 13, 4, Pp. 199–205. Abstract
UNLABELLED: Ultrafiltration membranes of 10,000 d, 1,000 d and 500 d were used to remove urinary macromolecules from the urine of normal subjects and from the urine of stone forming patients. The filtrated urines were examined for their residual inhibitory potential for calcium-oxalate precipitation, by the discrimination method of Sarig et al. (D.I. test). The results of testing the filtrate were complementary to the information gained by analyses of retentates obtained in successive ultrafiltration. The method has an inherent advantage because the manipulation of solids retained on membranes may inadvertantly modify their inhibitory potential. At least two distinct groups of inhibitors were found in 20 normal urines. The first group has MW above 10,000 d while the second group of inhibitors has MW in the range of 500-1,000 d. The mean of the D.I. values increased dramatically from the normal range (less than 0.6) to the stone former range (greater than 1.1) (p less than 0.001) after the 500 d filtration. Some of the normal urines, even after the 500 d filtration, still had a degree of inhibitory potential. This inhibitory potential may be related to the inorganic compounds which were found in the urines. The inhibitory activity of macromolecules with MW above 10,000 d and below 500 delta was negligible in 7 stone formers (SF) urines. The relative contribution of 500-1,000 d macromolecules is the highest both in SF and normal urines. CONCLUSIONS: 1) inhibitors in human urine are of wide range in MW; 2) stone formers and normals differ in the level of inhibitor activity at all MW ranges; especially in above 10,000 d and below inhibitors.[on SciFinder (R)]
N Garti and A Aserin. 1985. “Brominated, chlorinated and hydroxylated surfactants derived from oleyl chain: preparation and surface properties.” Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 6, 2, Pp. 175–191. Abstract
Bromination, chlorination and hydroxylation of the double bond in polyethylene glycol oleates and oleyl ethers and polyglycerol oleates were carried out. The products had higher sp. gr. and therefore can be used as weighting agents. Surface properties and the ability to emulsify water and oils did not change significantly. Phys. (sp. gr., viscosity, and refractive index) and surface properties (such as redn. of surface tension of water, crit. micelle concn. (CMC), area per mol. at the liq./air interface, efficiency and effectiveness were measured and compared to the corresponding unsatd. surfactants. The incorporated dibromo, dichloro, or dihydroxy groups diminish some of the surface properties of the surfactant, e.g. higher surface tension, higher CMC value, higher area per mol., and lower efficiency and effectiveness in comparison to the related unsatd. surfactants. This study confirmed early findings suggesting that oleyl ethoxylated surfactants behaved abnormally when compared to straight chain ethoxylated alcs. or acids or polyglycerol esters and that any derivatization in the hydrophobic chain would significantly alter surface properties. [on SciFinder(R)]
N Garti and M KATZ. 1985. “Adsorption and interfacial tension in emulsion.” Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 6, 2, Pp. 149–158. Abstract
Adsorption and redn. of interfacial tension caused by adsorption of nonionic ethoxylated nonyl phenols were studied in emulsion. A method for estg. adsorption and interfacial tension in emulsion was developed. There is no correlation between values of interfacial tension as measured in emulsified and sepd. and sepd. oil-water systems. Yet, there seems to be a significant correlation between adsorption values as measured in emulsified and sepd. oil-water systems. The values of max. adsorption of the emulsifiers as measured in the sepd. oil-water system correlate linearly with HLB values of these emulsifiers. Such correlation may indicate possible dependence of HLB values on emulsifier adsorption to the interface. [on SciFinder(R)]
N Garti, J SCHLICHTER, and S SARIG. 1985. “Polymorphism of even monoacid triglycerides in the presence of sorbitan monostearate, studied by the DSC.” Thermochimica Acta, 93, Pp. 29–32. Abstract
Fusion heats of 2 polymorphic forms, $Δ$H$\alpha$ and $Δ$H$\beta$, of triglycerides were measured. They were compared with corresponding measurements in the presence of a sorbitan monostearate [1338-41-6]. Results imply different effects of the emulsifier on long and short chains triglycerides with respect to phase transformation. [on SciFinder(R)]
Nissim Garti, Shlomo Magdassi, and Douglas. Whitehill. 1985. “Transfer phenomena across the oil phase in water-oil-water multiple emulsions evaluated by Coulter counter. 1. Effect of primary emulsifier on water permeability.” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 104, 2, Pp. 587–591. Abstract
The effect of primary emulsifier concn. (Span 80) in a system contg. Tween 80, mineral oil, and H2O on H2O transport due to an osmotic gradient was studied by a Coulter counter method. Diln. of W/O/W emulsions with dil. NaCl caused a decrease in multiple drop diam. due to loss of internal H2O. The primary mechanism appears to be micelle transport. [on SciFinder(R)]
AS KERTES, L TSIMERING, and N Garti. 1985. “Enthalpies of solution in sodium octanoate + water + alcohol mixtures.” Colloid and Polymer Science, 263, 1, Pp. 67–74. Abstract
The heats of soln. of Na octanoate in water, 1-propanol, and aq. mixts. of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-hexanol and of alcs. in aq. solns. of Na octanoate at various concns. were detd. calorimetrically at 35°. Most values are exothermic and strongly dependent on the solute concn. The main energetic factor governing the process of dissoln. of the surfactant is assocd. with changes in the water structure caused by the presence of alc. That governing the process of the alc. dissoln. in surfactant solns. is due to the effect alcs. have on the crit. micelle concn. of the octanoate. There is no indication of the alc. being either solubilized in the interior of the aq. micelle, or becoming part of the micellar firm. The soly. at 35° of Na octanoate in water, 1-propanol, and their mixts. was also detd. [on SciFinder(R)]
S MAGDASSI, M FRENKEL, and N Garti. 1985. “Correlation between nature of emulsifier and multiple emulsion stability.” Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 11, 4, Pp. 791–798. Abstract
The effect of emulsifier type on the prepn. and stability of multiple emulsions was studied. The effect on the yield of prepn. and stability with regard to the hydrophile-lipophile balance of the 2nd emulsifier was different for each emulsifier. The best stabilities of the multiple emulsions were obtained when there was a similarity between the hydrophobic part of the emulsifier and the oil phase. [on SciFinder(R)]
S PERLBERG, R AZOURY, N Garti, and S SARIG. 1985. “Use of the discriminant index in dynamic treatment to reduce recurrence of calcium oxalate kidney stones.” British journal of urology, 57, 5, Pp. 500–504. Abstract
Treatment with phosphates, thiazides and allopurinol was undertaken in 54 idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, 38 of whom were recurrent stone formers. The patients were followed up for 1 1/2 to 4 years (mean 2.6). During the same period at the pre-treatment stage the patients formed 80 stones, but during therapy only one stone was formed. A dynamic scheme of therapy was used. Each patient was tested before the start of drug treatment by the discriminant index (DI) method, which measures the overall inhibitory potential to calcium oxalate crystallisation. About 10 days after the start of treatment the DI was tested again. If the response was positive, therapy was continued; if not, the patient was given another drug. Adjustments were made as required. The stopping of stone formation correlated well with the DI prediction but less well with the hypocalciuric effect of the drugs.[on SciFinder (R)]
K SATO, K SUZUKI, M OKADA, and N Garti. 1985. “Solvent effects on kinetics of solution-mediated transition of stearic acid polymorphs.” Journal of Crystal Growth, 72, 3, Pp. 699–704. Abstract
The effects of solvent on the transition kinetics of polymorphic modifications of stearic acid were examd. in polar and nonpolar solns. Two typical polymorphs, B (low-temp. stable) and C (high-temp. stable), and the solvents (butanone, methanol, n-hexane, and decane) were studied. In all solns. the transitions from B to C and from C to B took place at temps. above and below 32°, at which the free energies of B and C have the same value, resp. The rates of the C → B transition were significantly dependent both on temp. and solvent. First, the transition rate was fastest between 22 and 26°. This was due to 2 conflicting factors; the free energy difference between B and C which decreases as the temp. approaches 32°, and the rates of dissoln. of C and growth of B which increase with temp.. Secondly, the solvent exclusively influenced the C → B transition; polar solvents, esp. methanol, caused a significantly more rapid transition than nonpolar solvents, the rates being relatively higher than those prediced by the soly. values. It was inferred that the different growth units (monomers in the polar solvents and dimers in the nonpolar ones) and the twisted lateral interface structures of the B polymorph would be responsible for the present solvent effect. [on SciFinder(R)]
S SARIG, R AZOURY, and N Garti. 1985. “Biological control to diminish dangers of urolithiasis.” Urologia internationalis, 40, 5, Pp. 274–276. Abstract
High concentrations of phosphate, oxalate, and calcium ions in urine may cause formation of mineral deposits, i.e., urolithiasis. This is prevented in healthy individuals by substances present in trace quantities. However, there is no recognizable difference between normals and stone formers in urinary substance content. The enzymes glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase produce glutamic acid which retards calcium oxalate crystallization. The combined transaminase activity in 70 stone former urine samples was 12.2 +/- 4.1 IU and 31.9 +/- 10.7 IU for 47 normal controls. Incubation of stone former urine with glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase improved overall inhibitory potential, raised glutamic acid levels, and decreased aspartic acid concentrations. Correlation was established between the success of therapeutic treatment and the improvement of enzyme activity. The relative content of glutamic acid is low stone former urines and high in active inhibitory fractions of urinary materials. It is suggested that part of the mechanisms of prevention of stone formation is subjected to biological control.[on SciFinder (R)]
S SARIG, D HIRSCH, N Garti, and B GOLDWASSER. 1985. “Epitaxial growth of calcium oxalate on uric acid.” In Urolithiasis Relat. Clin. Res., [Proc. Int. Symp.], 5th, Pp. 781–784. Plenum. Abstract
The possibility that an addnl. agent might be involved in the epitaxial growth of Ca oxalate on uric acid was investigated. Evidence for a preferential occurrence of epitaxy between Ca oxalate and Na urate is provided. Uric acid seeds failed to trigger Ca oxalate pptn.; however, when glutamic acid was present, Ca oxalate deposition on uric acid seeds was obsd. The relations of the data to Ca oxalate urinary stone formation in normocalciuric-hyperuricosuric patients and to allopurinol treatment are discussed. [on SciFinder(R)]
J SCHLICHTER, S SARIG, and N Garti. 1985. “Polymorphic transformations of cocoa butter in the presence of emulsifier, studied by the DSC.” Thermochimica Acta, 85, Pp. 517–520. Abstract
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the extent of polymorphic transformations in pure cocoa butter in the presence of a food emulsifier. The spontaneous transformation from the low to the high polymorph was accelerated by low percentages of emulsifier, but the transformation to the most stable VI form was retarded. The available liq. fraction program was used to explain this apparent controversy. [on SciFinder(R)]