Peer Review Publications

Judith Schlichter, Nissim Garti, and Sara. Sarig. 1984. “Bleaching of chocolate relating to polymorphism of cocoa butter.” Industrie Alimentari (Pinerolo, Italy), 23, 11, Pp. 871–877. Abstract
Polymorphic transitions between the cryst. forms 4, 5, and 6 of coca butter (m. 27.5, 33.8, and 36.3°, resp.) were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction. The transitions were modified by surfactants of the Span and Tween type, mostly in favor of form 5. Expts. were also carried out on chocolate. There was little relation between polymorphic transition and bleaching. Bleaching seemed, however, related to the rate of cooling, and was due to the migration of a molten cocoa butter fraction to the surface. [on SciFinder(R)]
Reuven Azoury, Alan D Randolph, George W Drach, Saul Perlberg, Nissim Garti, and Sara. Sarig. 1983. “Inhibition of calcium oxalate crystallization by glutamic acid: different effects at low and high concentrations.” Journal of Crystal Growth, 64, 2, Pp. 389–392. Abstract
The effects of L-aspartic acid, alanine, and L-glutamic acid on the crystn. of Ca oxalate were followed by 2 methods. Glutamic acid (0-200 ppm) was added to solns. of CaCl2 which were subsequently mixed with solns. of Na2C2O4 to yield CaC2O4 pptn. At relatively high concns. of glutamic acid (20-200 ppm), the pptn. of Ca oxalate is retarded. However, at low concns., 2.5-20 ppm, oxalate pptn. is enhanced. The 2 independent methods yield well-correlated results. Both L-aspartic acid and alanine did not affect the pptn. of Ca oxalate. The results are discussed with respect to renal calculi formation. [on SciFinder(R)]
Moshe Frenkel, Rosi Shwartz, and Nissim. Garti. 1983. “Multiple emulsions. I. Stability: inversion, apparent and weighted HLB.” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 94, 1, Pp. 174–178. Abstract
Inversion of multiple W/O/W emulsions into O/W systems was studied as a function of the HLB of the external emulsifier, its concn., and droplet size. Inversion occurs only when droplet size is reduced under crit. size or if the HLB of the total emulsifiers present in the system (weighted HLB) approaches the required HLB of the oil phase. Inversion is independent of the HLB of the external emulsifier by itself (apparent HLB). [on SciFinder(R)]
M FRENKEL, Z KRAUZ, and N Garti. 1983. “Brominated surfactants as emulsifiers and weighting agents. Part III. Weighting properties.” Colloids and Surfaces, 8, 1, Pp. 45–54. Abstract
Brominated Span 80, brominated Tween 80, brominated oleic acid, and brominated linoleic acid function as emulsifiers and weighting agents in castor oil-in-water emulsions and increase the sp. gr. of oil droplets. Stable emulsions are obtained at appropriate concns. of emulsifiers, and downward creaming (sedimentation) occurs when larger concns. of weighting agents-emulsifier are used. The efficiency of the weighting agent-emulsifier depends on the sp. gr., HLB value, and water soly. Brominated oleic and linoleic acids (in presence of triethanolamine) are the most efficient because they are hydrotropic and are adsorbed in the oil-water interface or dissolved in the oil. [on SciFinder(R)]
M FRIEDMAN and N Garti. 1983. “Maleyl esters of monoglycerides of saturated fatty acids.” JAOCS, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 60, 6, Pp. 1134–1141. Abstract
The effects of reactant ratio and reaction conditions on the compn. of the products are detd. for the esterification of maleic anhydride and monoglycerides of satd. fatty acids. The concn. of monoesters is higher in products prepd. in a closed reactor, compared with products compared in an open reactor. The compn. of the reaction product is varied as desired by appropriate selection of the temp., reaction time, and ratio of reactants. [on SciFinder(R)]
N Garti, E WELLNER, A Aserin, and S SARIG. 1983. “Analysis of sorbitan fatty acid esters by HPLC.” JAOCS, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 60, 6, Pp. 1151–1154. Abstract
Sorbitan esters of several fatty acids were analyzed by high-pressure liq. chromatog. (HPLC) using an Lichrosorb RP-18 column (25 cm × 4.6 mm). No derivatization was necessary. Mono-, di- and trisorbitan esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic, isostearic, and sesquioleic acid were sepd. using iso-PrOH-water (85:15, 80:20, or 92:8) as the elution mixt. [on SciFinder(R)]
Nissim Garti, Moshe Frenkel, and Rosi. Shwartz. 1983. “Multiple emulsions. Part II: Proposed technique to overcome unpleasant taste of drugs.” Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 4, 3, Pp. 237–252. Abstract
Multiple emulsions of H2O-in-oil-in-H2O (W/O/W) were used to overcome the unpleasant taste of drugs such as chlorpromazine-HCl [69-09-0]. The drug was dissolved in the inner H2O phase and was released throughout the oil phase in the presence of synthetic gastric juice. Inner (I) and outer (II) emulsifiers were used. A combination of anionic-nonionic emulsifiers such as 8 wt.% Brij 93 [9004-98-2] as I and 3 wt.% Span 20 [1338-39-2] + Tween 80 [9005-65-6] + triethanolamine oleate [2717-15-9] as II (anionic-nonionic 1:4) gave high yield of prepn., high stability and complete release of drug in synthetic gastric juice. [on SciFinder(R)]
James F Outlaw Jr., James Ray Cozort, Nissim Garti, and Samuel. Siegel. 1983. “Dienes as possible intermediates in the catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons. 1. Dienes derived from 1,4-di-tert-butylbenzene and a rhodium catalyst.” Journal of Organic Chemistry, 48, 23, Pp. 4186–4190. Abstract
Product evolution upon hydrogenating 3 diene derivs. of p-(Me3C)2C6H4 (I) is compared with the formation of 1,4-di-tert-butylcyclohexene (II) and cis- (III) and trans-1,4-di-tert-butylcyclohexane from I on a Rh/Al2O3 catalyst to det. which diene(s), upon adsorption on the catalyst, best represent(s) the structure of the intermediate formed in the rate-detg. surface reaction of I. Of the dienes 1,4-di-tert-butyl-1,4- (IV) and -1,3- (V) and 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,3-cyclohexadiene (VI), VI exhibits best the properties expected if it forms the same absorbed intermediate as I at the same H pressure. Unlike I, however, the dienes do not yield the cis-satd. isomer III as an initial product at low H pressures. Instead cis-3,6-di-tert-butylcyclohexene (VII) is formed, along with II and I; the dienes tend to exclude the cycloalkenes from the catalyst, their effectiveness increasing in the order IV \textless V \textless VI. At low pressures, \textless5% of I is transformed directly to III; instead, II and VII are produced initially. Because the concn. of the intermediate adsorbed dienes remains low during I hydrogenation, the cis ene VIII is converted rapidly to III in the presence of I. [on SciFinder(R)]
S SARIG, N Garti, R AZOURY, S PERLBERG, and Y WAX. 1983. “Follow-up of drug therapy efficacy to prevent recurrence of calcium oxalate kidney stone formation.” The Journal of urology, 129, 6, Pp. 1258–1261. Abstract
Results of a prospective study of response to phosphate treatment after surgery in a group of kidney stone formers, some of them recurrent are presented. The follow-up, of 1 year duration, was carried out by periodic tests of the stone formers' urine using the Discriminating Index (DI) procedure. In a group of 32 stone formers, 30 individuals showed a remarkable change in the DI value; i.e., the inhibiting potential of their urine was similar to that of normals. Two of the patients did not respond well, and their drug treatment was adjusted accordingly. During this year no recurrency was reported.[on SciFinder (R)]
R AZOURY, N Garti, S PERLBERG, and S SARIG. 1982. “May enzyme activity in urine play a role in kidney stone formation?” Urological research, 10, 4, Pp. 185–189. Abstract
It has been found that calcium oxalate stone formers have low UGOT and UGPT activity compared to healthy individuals. The urine of 23 stone formers and 19 controls has been tested for combined UGOT and UGPT activity. The effect of L-aspartic acid, alanine and L-glutamic acid on calcium oxalate precipitation has been tested. Only L-glutamic acid exerted a significant retardation effect at physiological concentrations. As GPT and GOT convert alanine and aspartic acid respectively into glutamic acid, a possible mechanism of retardation of kidney stone formation involving enzyme steps via glutamic acid creation in situ is suggested.[on SciFinder (R)]
R AZOURY, S SARIG, N Garti, and S PERLBERG. 1982. “Retardation of calcium oxalate precipitation by glutamic-oxalacetic-transaminase activity.” Urological research, 10, 4, Pp. 169–172. Abstract
It has been found that calcium oxalate stone formers have low UGOT activity compared to healthy individuals (controls). Urine from stone formers with no GOT activity and no effect on calcium oxalate precipitation was incubated with GOT for various periods. Subsequently calcium oxalate precipitation was decreased and found to be considerably retarded i.e., the pathological urine after the incubation acted in a way similar to that of normal urine. The yield of Glutamic-Oxalacetic Transaminase (GOT) activity is glutamic acid. It was shown that glutamic acid has a significant retardation effect on the precipitation of calcium oxalate stone formation. Therefore it may be suggested that GOT activity involved in glutamic acid creation in situ, has a role in kidney stone formation.[on SciFinder (R)]
M FRENKEL, Z KRAUZ, and N Garti. 1982. “Brominated surfactants as emulsifiers and weighting agents. Part I. Preparation and surface properties.” Colloids and Surfaces, 5, 4, Pp. 353–362. Abstract
Brominated surfactants are prepd. by the complete bromination of the double bonds in the hydrophobic chains of the oleic acid [112-80-1], linoleic acid [60-33-3], Span 80 [1338-43-8], Span 85 [26266-58-0], Tween 80 [9005-65-6], and Tween 85 [9005-70-3]. The addn. of Br increases the sp. gr. of the surfactant mol. to values above that of water, allowing the formation of oil-in-water emulsions with denser droplets, i.e., the surfactants are emulsifiers and weighting agents. The surfactant properties of the brominated surfactants are discussed. [on SciFinder(R)]

Pages