1st volume (2009), 2nd volume (2011), 3rd volume (2013).

Nissim Garti, Abraham Aserin, Dima Libster, Idit Amar-Yuli, Tehila Mishraki, and Liron. Bitan-Chervkovsky. 2013. “Reverse hexagonal mesophases (hii) and uses thereof.”. Abstract
Reverse hexagonal mesophase (HII) liq. crystals are provided and relating therapeutic and non-therapeutic applications are demonstrated. [on SciFinder(R)]
Sarah Fisher, Ellen J Wachtel, Abraham Aserin, and Nissim. Garti. 2013. “Solubilization of simvastatin and phytosterols in a dilutable microemulsion system.” Colloids and Surfaces, B: Biointerfaces, 107, Pp. 35–42. Abstract
The usual treatment of hypercholesterolemia includes a class of drugs known as statins (simvastatin among them), which inhibit the prodn. of cholesterol. Another way of reducing cholesterol levels is with the use of phytosterols, which reduce the transport of exogenic cholesterol from the intestine into the blood stream. The 2 treatments can be combined, achieving an additive effect. However, both simvastatin and phytosterols are practically insol. in water, and therefore their absorption and activity are low. Nanosized self-assembled structured liq. systems are modified microemulsions that present an alternative pathway for improving the bioavailability of poorly water-sol. drugs. The goal of this study was to solubilize the maximal quantity of both simvastatin and phytosterols in a single, fully dilutable microemulsion system. The authors constructed a water-dilutable liq. drug delivery system that includes sucrose monolaurate, propylene glycol, and oleyl lactate. This system exhibits high solubilization capacity for both simvastatin (7.0 wt%) and phytosterols (3.5 wt%) when each is solubilized sep. in a water-free conc. When simvastatin and phytosterols were solubilized together at a wt ratio of 2.5:1, max. solubilization was obtained with 4.7 wt% simvastatin and 1.9 wt% phytosterols. Structural and anal. methods were applied including rheol., DSC, SD-NMR, SAXS, and cryo-TEM. The water-free "conc." consisted of direct micelles for which propylene glycol served as the hydrophilic phase. Upon water diln., the direct micelles appear to form "lipophilic compds. dispersed in hydrophilic continuous phase". The solubilizates are located in the droplet core and/or at the interface. [on SciFinder(R)]
Liron Bitan-Cherbakovsky, Abraham Aserin, and Nissim. Garti. 2013. “Structural characterization of lyotropic liquid crystals containing a dendrimer for solubilization and release of gallic acid.” Colloids and Surfaces, B: Biointerfaces, 112, Pp. 87–95. Abstract
The role of 2nd generation polypropyleneimine (PPIG2) dendrimer in controlling the release of gallic acid (GA) as a model drug from lyotropic liq. crystal was explored. GA (0.2 wt%) was solubilized in three types of mesophases: lamellar (L$\alpha$), cubic (space group of Ia3d, QG), and reverse hexagonal (HII), composed of GMO and water (and D-$\alpha$-tocopherol, or tricaprylin in the case of HII mesophases). Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform IR (ATR-FTIR) along with UV spectrophotometry were utilized to elucidate the structure modifications and release resulting from the cosolubilization of GA and PPIG2. Solubilization of PPIG2 into L$\alpha$ and QG phases caused transformation of both structures to HII. The diffusion of GA out of the mesophases was found to be dependent on water content and PPIG2 concn. Rapid release from L$\alpha$ + PPIG2 and QG + PPIG2 mesophases was recorded. The release from both HII mixts. (with D-$\alpha$-tocopherol and tricaprylin) was shown to be dependent on the type of oil. Release studies conducted for 72 h showed that GA release can be modulated and sustained by the presence of PPIG2, supposedly due to the electrostatic interactions between the dendrimer and the drug mol. [on SciFinder(R)]
Nir Debotton and Simon. Benita. 2012. “Characterization and therapeutic applications of immunonanoparticles as targeted drug delivery systems: a focus on cancer therapy.” In Nanotechnol. Solubilization Delivery Foods, Cosmet. Pharm., Pp. 303–339. DEStech Publications, Inc. Abstract
A review on immunonanoparticles (immunoNPs) as promising drug-targeting, colloidal carriers, that can ensure the specific recognition of the antigen site and, using the colloidal delivery system, release cytotoxic agents close to the inaccessible pathol. target tissues-over-expressing tumor antigen. The main approaches used for the coupling of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to NPs are reviewed. In addn., the preclin. achievements of NP formulations conjugated to various MAbs are described and updated. Also addressed is the synergistic importance of the MAbs as targeting moieties on immunoNP formulations as compds. that not only target specific pathol. organs, but also ensure increased therapeutic activity of the drug-loaded NPs by actually internalizing them within the desired cells. [on SciFinder(R)]
Barbara Klajnert and Maria. Bryszewska. 2012. “Dendrimeric polymers for pharma applications - anti-cancer therapies.” In Nanotechnol. Solubilization Delivery Foods, Cosmet. Pharm., Pp. 367–381. DEStech Publications, Inc. Abstract
A review. During the last twenty years dendrimers have attracted wide interest as potential therapeutics. These novel macromols. differ in many ways from traditional polymers. Dendrimers are globular, possessing a core mol. to which layers of branched monomers are attached. The no. of layers is described by so-called generations. The structure of dendrimers results in plenty of terminal surface groups and empty internal cavities. Both these features are important when considering dendrimers for biomedical applications. Moreover, precise methods of synthesis enable the tailoring of dendrimers to specific purposes. In this concise review, a few examples of the part dendrimers play in anti-cancer therapies will be presented. It is worth stressing that these examples of pharma applications of dendrimers do not include all areas of study that are presently being conducted, and that each year produce new ways to use dendrimers in medicine. [on SciFinder(R)]
Owen Griffith Jones and Julian. D McClements. 2012. “Development of colloidal delivery systems for food and pharmaceutical applications based on proteins and polysaccharides.” In Nanotechnol. Solubilization Delivery Foods, Cosmet. Pharm., Pp. 81–123. DEStech Publications, Inc. Abstract
A review. There is an increasing tendency towards the development of food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products contg. only natural ingredients. Many proteins and polysaccharides extd. from nature can be used as functional ingredients to form colloidal systems suitable for use in industrial products. These colloidal systems can be fabricated using a variety of physicochem. and processing approaches. This chapter focuses on the fabrication and properties of sub-micron to micron-sized colloidal particles, formed by controlled aggregation/complexation of mixed biopolymer systems. The processes used to fabricate these particles include treatments of globular protein and/or polysaccharide solns. at select temps., pH, ionic strengths, and/or solvent qualities. Potential applications of the biopolymer colloidal particles are discussed. [on SciFinder(R)]
Vesselin Kolev, Abraham Aserin, and Nissim. Garti. 2012. “Dividing planes of hexagonal HII mesophase.” In Self-Assem. Supramol. Archit., Pp. 79–96. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Abstract
A review. Presented is a brief review of the cylindrical dividing surfaces (planes) of the hexagonal inverse HII phase-Luzzati, pivotal, and neutral. They are presented as interrelated surfaces through the general expression of elastic energy per mol. valid for the corresponding surface. For each of the planes, the routine for deriving the plane parameters-radius, area, and vol. per mol., as well as their role in terms of mech. description the of HII phase-is described in detail. Special attention is paid to the numerical routines for parameter calcns. from exptl. data, using least-squares routines and the related methods of merit function optimization (minimization). In addn., cases of error estn. are presented along with discussions about the accuracy of used numerical routines. [on SciFinder(R)]
Nissim Garti and Rachel. Lutz. 2012. “Double emulsions.” In Encycl. Surf. Colloid Sci. (2nd Ed.), Pp. 1816–1845, 30 pp. Taylor & Francis. Abstract
A review provides better understanding of the stabilizing mechanisms and pathways and a better control of the release patterns from double emulsions. It discusses the different approaches such as stability considerations, instability pathways, release and transport phenomenon. [on SciFinder(R)]
Nissim Garti and Abraham. Aserin. 2012. “Effect of emulsifiers on cocoa butter and chocolate rheology, polymorphism, and bloom.” AOCS Monograph Series on Oilseeds, 6, Cocoa Butter and Related Compounds, Pp. 275–305. Abstract
A review on two major activities of emulsifiers on cocoa butter and chocolate: rheol. and polymorphism. It discusses the effects of emulsifiers on viscosity and bloom. [on SciFinder(R)]
N Perkas, A Gedanken, I Perelshtein, and U Shimanovich. 2012. “Embedding antibacterial inorganic nanoparticles and proteinaceous microspheres in textiles by a sonochemical method.” In Nanotechnol. Solubilization Delivery Foods, Cosmet. Pharm., Pp. 341–366. DEStech Publications, Inc. Abstract
A review. A review on the works that have been done on the antibacterial functionalization of textiles using a sonochem. method. It covers the works published until Dec. 2009 by different authors using ultrasound irradn. [on SciFinder(R)]
Improved technologies for the encapsulation, protection, release and enhanced bioavailability of food ingredients and nutraceutical components are vital to the development of future foods. Encapsulation technologies and delivery systems for food ingredients and nutraceuticals provides a comprehensive guide to current and emerging techniques.Part one provides an overview of key requirements for food ingredient and nutraceutical delivery systems, discussing challenges in system development and analysis of interaction with the human gastrointestinal tract. Processing technologies for enca
Meital Gavriel Aviv, Boaz Amit, Avner Yayon, Nissim Garti, and Helga Furedi. Milhofer. 2012. “Gradient organic inorganic nanocomposites for tissue repair at the cartilage/bone interface.” Key Engineering Materials, 493-494, Bioceramics 23, Pp. 577–581. Abstract
Damages to articular cartilage that are caused by trauma, age-related diseases (arthritis, arthrosis) and/or phys. stress pose major medical problems. A possible soln. is to introduce a biodegradable sponge-like scaffold contg. cartilage-forming cells. In the current work we developed a model for a partially calcified functional biomedical membrane with a gradient of calcium phosphate crystal d. to form the interface between bone and a sponge-like cell contg. scaffold for cartilage regeneration. The membrane consists of a biocompatible, biodegradable, partially calcified hydrogel, in our case gelatin was used. One part is an org.-inorg. nanocomposite consisting of nanocryst. calcium phosphate particles, formed in situ within the hydrogel, while the other part is the hydrogel without inorg. crystals. The exptl. method used was one-dimensional single diffusion. Gelatin gels contg. calcium or phosphate ions, resp., were exposed from the upper side to a soln. of the other constituent ion (i.e. a sodium phosphate soln. was allowed to diffuse into a calcium contg. gel and vice versa). SEM (E-SEM), EDX, XRD and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the existence within the gel of a d. gradient of carbonate apatite crystals, with a dense top layer extending several microns into the gel. Ca/P at. ratios were in the range characteristic of calcium deficient apatites. The effect of different exptl. parameters on the calcification process within the gelatin membranes is discussed. [on SciFinder(R)]
Chandrashekhar V Kulkarni and Otto. Glatter. 2012. “Hierarchically organized systems based on liquid crystalline phases.” In Self-Assem. Supramol. Archit., Pp. 157–191. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Abstract
A review. Presented are hierarchically organized nanostructures formed from lyotropic liq. cryst. (LC) phases. The nano-, micro-, and macroscopic structural hierarchy arises from the kinetic stability of various lyotropic phases dispersed in oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. When an O/W emulsion consists of a dispersion of LC nanoparticles stabilized by certain stabilizers, it is called an ISAsome, i.e., an internally self-assembled particle. In contrast, when the water droplets are dispersed in a continuous film of LC nanostructures, they are called W/O-nanostructured emulsions, which do not require a stabilizing agent. Both emulsions exhibit fascinating properties that can be tuned to a great extent. Such tunability proliferates their performance in various applications. Herein, the formation, multiscale structure, properties, and their modulation for the aforementioned superstructures formed from LC phases are discussed. Focusing further on ISAsomes Pickering emulsions stabilized by various nanoparticles are presented, including synthetic clay laponite and silica nanoparticles. The transfer of hydrophobic components among several differently nanostructured ISAsomes was studied by time-resolved x-ray scattering; the effects of Isasome-forming components are also illustrated. The continuous aq. region of ISAsome dispersions can be loaded with water-sol. polymers that form thermo-reversible hydrogels. This enables the entrapment of ISAsome systems into such hydrogel networks. Subsequent drying of these loaded systems facilitates immobilization of ISAsomes, which can be easily restored by rehydration of the loaded dry films. The formation of hydrogels in the aq. reservoirs of W/O-nanostructured emulsions also proved advantageous in terms of tuning their viscosity and, in some cases, enhancing their stability. The current contribution covers systems with diverse structural hierarchy, ranging from equil. liq. cryst. nanostructures to the systems with multiple orders of length scales in their structure. [on SciFinder(R)]
Nissim Garti, Dima Libster, and Abraham. Aserin. 2012. “Lipid polymorphism in lyotropic liquid crystals for triggered release of bioactives.” Food & Function, 3, 7, Pp. 700–713. Abstract
In this review the authors present recent progress on lyotropic liq. crystals (LLC) as delivery vehicles for cosmetoceuticals, nutraceuticals, and drugs. LLC were known for decades and their potential as delivery vehicles is well recognized. Yet, the 2 major mesophases, reverse hexagonal (HII) and bicontinuous cubic (primitive, gyroid, and diamond), are relatively hard gels with very slow release kinetics of the bioactives. In recent years a discontinuous cubic micellar mesophase (QL) was characterized and studied, showing significant potential as a delivery vehicle. In addn., the HII mesophase formed could be much more fluid and produced at room temp. Recent studies concd. on establishing methods to evaluate solubilization capacity and relationship between the diam. and length of the cylinders and the nature of the solubilizates. Special attention was given to finding methods to target the vehicles to the lumen and to trigger the release of the bioactives. This review summarizes the efforts of the authors' group along with work by numerous other scientists in this area. All these efforts suggest that the lyotropic mesophases and the corresponding dispersed soft particles (cubosomes, hexosomes, micellosomes) are now more than ever ready to become drug delivery vehicles for transport across the skin and the gut. [on SciFinder(R)]
Nissim Garti, Geut Hoshen, and Abraham. Aserin. 2012. “Lipolysis and structure controlled drug release from reversed hexagonal mesophase.” Colloids and Surfaces, B: Biointerfaces, 94, Pp. 36–43. Abstract
The present work investigates a system composed of a ternary reversed hexagonal mesophase (HII) loaded with a lipase for modulating drug delivery capabilities of the system. Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase was solubilized into HII mesophase for the benefits of continuing lipolysis of the lipids, consequently disordering and decompg. the hexagonal mesophase and thereby enhancing the diffusion of the encapsulated drug. A single transition from the HII structure to a random micellar phase was detected during the lipolysis. In the first lipolysis stage the hexagonal system (glycerol monooleate, tricaprylin, and water) preserved its symmetry within ca. 200 min. During this step about 40-60% molar of the lipids were hydrolyzed, and a gradual shrinking of the HII cylinders (decrease of 8 \AA in lattice parameter) was detected. In the second lipolysis stage, the HII mesophase gradually disintegrated (faster rate) and the release of a model drug (sodium diclofenac) was significantly enhanced, which was assumed to be lipolysis rate-controlled. After about 15 h the HII mesophase was disintegrated into two dispersed immiscible phases. The release obeyed two-step Higuchi kinetics with two consecutive linear correlations of the drug release. [on SciFinder(R)]
Massimo Bonini and Pierandrea. Lo Nostro. 2012. “Micelle formation: thermodynamic aspects and characterization.” In Nanotechnol. Solubilization Delivery Foods, Cosmet. Pharm., Pp. 31–49. DEStech Publications, Inc. Abstract
A review. The most prominent feature of surfactants is their ability to self-assoc. and form discrete aggregates in aq. dispersions. Among the various self-assembled structures that are produced (vesicles, membranes, liq. crystals, etc.), micelles represent the simplest class of assocn. colloids, and are widely used as nano-architectures for different applications. In spite of the vast literature, a complete understanding of all the exptl. evidences related to the micellization process is still a work in progress. In particular, the thermodn. and kinetics of micellization provide the crucial concepts for the control of dissocn. and reconstruction of micelles, such as in the solubilization, stabilization and delivery of active ingredients, and in cosmetics, detergents, food technol., and in pharmaceutical formulations. In this contribution, we offer an overview of the various structures formed by self-assembling amphiphilic mols. in water. The basic thermodn. involved in self-assembly is described, and an overview of the exptl. techniques used in the characterization of the structure and properties of these nanostructures is given. [on SciFinder(R)]
N Garti and A Aserin. 2012. “Micelles and microemulsions as food ingredient and nutraceutical delivery systems.” Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, 239, Encapsulation Technologies and Delivery Systems for Food Ingredients and Nutraceuticals, Pp. 211–251. Abstract
A review. Microemulsions are considered excellent delivery vehicles for bioactives, food additives and food supplements. They offer the advantages of spontaneous formation, ease of manuf., thermodn. stability, very low viscosity and Newtonian properties, full transparency (clear solns.) and improved solubilization capacities of bioactive materials. This chapter explores some of the new trends in microemulsion research, including many carried out in our lab, through anal. of some representative studies. The solubilization of different food additives such as flavoring agents, aromas, antioxidants, and colorants, as well as peptides and nutraceuticals, in various microemulsion compns. and microstructures are reviewed. [on SciFinder(R)]
Vesselin Kolev, Anela Ivanova, Galia Madjarova, Abraham Aserin, and Nissim. Garti. 2012. “Molecular dynamics approach to water structure of HII mesophase of monoolein.” Journal of Chemical Physics, 136, 7, Pp. 074509/1–074509/11. Abstract
The goal of the present work is to study theor. the structure of water inside the water cylinder of the inverse hexagonal mesophase (HII) of glyceryl monooleate (monoolein, GMO), using the method of mol. dynamics. To simplify the computational model, a fixed structure of the GMO tube is maintained. The nonstd. cylindrical geometry of the system required the development and application of a novel method for obtaining the starting distribution of water mols. A predictor-corrector schema is employed for generation of the initial d. of water. Mol. dynamics calcns. are performed at const. vol. and temp. (NVT ensemble) with 1-dimensional periodic boundary conditions applied. During the simulations the lipid structure is kept fixed, while the dynamics of water is unrestrained. Distribution of hydrogen bonds and d. as well as radial distribution of water mols. across the water cylinder show water structure deep in the cylinder (∼6 \AA below the GMO heads). The obtained results may help understanding the role of water structure in the processes of insertion of external mols. inside the GMO/water system. The present work has a semi-quant. character and it should be considered as the initial stage of more comprehensive future theor. studies. (c) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [on SciFinder(R)]
Claire Geral, Angelina Angelova, Sylviane Lesieur, Borislav Angelov, and Valerie. Nicolas. 2012. “Multicompartment lipid nanocarriers for targeting of cells expressing brain receptors.” In Self-Assem. Supramol. Archit., Pp. 319–355. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Abstract
A review. Neurotrophic factors, such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are essential for the development and survival of human neurons. Their encapsulation in carrier lipid systems is anticipated to overcome the problems resulting from the pharmacokinetics of peptides in the cerebral circulation. Lipid nanocarriers contg. an omega-3 polyunsatd. fatty acid [eicosapentaenoic acid] (EPA), showing neuroprotective effects, should trigger the BDNF activity. The purpose of this study is to design and characterize self-assembled lipid systems suitable for encapsulation and potentiation of neurotrophic peptide activity and study of multicompartment liq. cryst. formulations in vitro on a human neuronal cell line expressing BDNF receptors. Sterically stabilized nanodispersed lipid systems are prepd. from a PEGylated (polyethylene glycol) liq. cryst. phase in excess water. Such lipid nanovectors, derived by self-assembly, are of ongoing interest thanks to their biocompatible compns. and the relatively low energy input required for their manuf. The latter is an essential factor for the encapsulation of fragile and temp.-sensitive peptide mols. Having induced the differentiation of a human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, as a model of neurodegeneration, we examine in vitro the expression of the TrkB brain receptor of neurotrophins and the cytotoxicity of the designed multicompartment lipid nanocarriers to neuronal cells. [on SciFinder(R)]