Sterols: functionality, solubilization, and delivery vehicles.


I Amar-Yuli, S Rozner, A Aserin, and Nissim. Garti. 2016. “Sterols: functionality, solubilization, and delivery vehicles.” In Encycl. Surf. Colloid Sci. (3rd Ed.), 9: Pp. 6877–6891. CRC Press.


Cholesterol (CH) is a vital mol. for mammalian life. It functions as a precursor for a variety of biol. active mols. and as a moderator of membrane mobility, and has many other essential functions. However, a high blood CH level can cause development of cardiovascular diseases. The soln. for high CH level is an intake of CH-lowering drugs such as statins. Another option for lowering excess CH is intake of phytosterols (PS) as a nutraceutical, which reduces CH absorption in mammals. PS are sterols synthesized only in plants and are structurally similar to CH but with an extra hydrophobic carbon chain at the C-24 position. PS and CH both have low soly. in oil and even lower soly. in water. To improve the efficiency of PS in lowering CH level, it is important to develop suitable vehicles that will improve their solubilization and absorption. In this entry, we examine sterol-solubilization vehicles, which include micelles, emulsions, microemulsions, and bile salt (BS) systems. The discussion focuses on the solubilization capacity (SC) of the vehicles and their effect on the extent of CH absorption/inhibition. It can be concluded that the solubilized PS in these various vehicles enables a significant decrease in CH absorption in comparison to the intake of PS in its solid form. In addn., we shall review the competitive solubilization of CH and PS in microemulsion systems to understand the competitive solubilization mechanism, which has been proposed as one of the mechanisms for PS activity as a CH-lowering agent. [on SciFinder(R)]
Last updated on 05/27/2020